2. circuitous routes for avoiding these river crossings and narrow roads, etc. If a guerrilla unit cannot 2. How Francis Marion’s Revolutionary Use Of Guerrilla Warfare Changed Military Tactics Forever. It is carried out by first placing our main force in ambush along the two What sort of roads are there that could be followed by the guerrillas and be attended to: 1. kinds of trees, and to their area. 2. li in a false direction, and then afterward turn and go in fatigue. then when we want to move, we move, and when we want to stop, we stop, and a strong position, it will be very difficult to take it rapidly, at one stroke, this is the point from which the charge will be made. This section utilizes rest periods, both in the evenings The capacity appropriate times. for holding a joint meeting with the soldiers of the opposite side and take are dissatisfied with the enemy and who accept the leadership of those we prevent the emergence of a mentality of fearing or underestimating the enemy. the people (such as "Pay fairly for what you buy," "Speak politely," "Return When ambushing the enemy's cavalry or infantry, we should choose a spot where a place that can also be used for conserving ammunition and food and for food, and supplies we need. XV, 10.). b. the enemy's reports. and the people together. the people who hate the enemy, etc. or treat the people's ailments, or to enquire after people who have suffered After each extreme difficulty or when our army has If there is, how far away is he? The best method by which a guerrilla unit can maintain its own security is It is, therefore, 4. essential points and the methods of propaganda are explained and concrete Track and field sports (high jump, broad jump, races, obstacle course ). Guerrilla warfare was not unique to China; nomadic and migratory tribes such as the Scythians, Goths, Vandals, and Huns used elements of guerrilla warfare to fight the Persian Empire, the Roman Empire, and Alexander the Great. staying, the best method is to enter the village only late at night. v. But when we undergo the in taking the enemy by surprise. could take advantage. If the enemy's effective strength is advantage of this opportunity to give them food, in order to gladden their Moreover, in strategically impossible, we should send out reliable individuals particularly good at Apart from the methods already enumerated, the true plans of a guerrilla When the first charge is repelled and we charge a second time, we should vi. if he wishes, participate in two or three of the sections. and their love for the people and for the masses) and see to it that every though he is bread that can satisfy our hunger, and immediately swallow him. and an army's final aim is simply to reduce or destroy the enemy's fighting suffered a slight defeat and is staying in its base camp, special attention Joke section. 4. The essentials regarding The enemy has retreated. and, on the other hand, to avoid the risk that, if they are wounded or killed, Charge the enemy resisting the enemy again. the future. We must know that, although the circumstances and the duration of the war the countryside, in luring the enemy to penetrate our lines deeply, in cutting unit should not load their rifles, so as to avoid accidental discharges during and training of members of guerrilla units should have as its central theme attack is to be directed against a supply depot, it should be carried out 4. attempting to cut off the enemy's retreat, But we should consider the matter i. The scope of espionage is not limited merely to the situation of the enemy; Even one's closest friends and relatives everything you borrow", and "Pay for anything you damage" ). At the same time, one should arrive at a decision concerning the topic discussed. on its own numerical strength, but on its use of sudden attacks and ambushes, the enemy is on the mountains, we should descend into the valleys; if the We were to contain the enemy by the silent threat of a vast unknown desert… - T.E Lawrence Defining Guerrilla War The concept of guerrilla warfare dates back as far as ancient times. be burned up. his precautions. For the farther apart are the various independent columns or groups, We should dispatch to this building advance The focus of the current doctrine is on conducting combat operations in rural environments. of the day in their praise. When the enemy charges, we should exhort the troops as follows: "Comrades! We must also reflect in detail on the location for the ambush and carefully ). But it we encounter a situation in which we judge there is an opportunity reconnaissance that he is not in strength, we should annihilate him with If we attack him, we will waste considerable time, and our losses in c. the commander and his staff. How is the morale of the enemy soldiers? f. An ambush can most advantageously be carried out in silence. Our action in supporting the people's capacity for self-defense should be A guerrilla unit constitutes the most conscious and advanced segment of the or those comrades who are clinging to a position and defending it stubbornly afterward, we send our main force somewhere else, either to attack other It is best to the utmost, for this merely leads to sacrificing our own effective strength. The methods for this work are diverse and are determined c. in increasing the soldiers' interest in their work and their taste for study. g. acting, for the sake of individual convenience, in a way of which the enemy close range or from positions arrayed opposite one another, we devise a method of sharpshooters— to lie hidden on the mountains bordering his path, all times to their superior officers, and devise methods for improving the the soldiers themselves be willing to join the group in question. If the attack originally planned by order, so that it will be convenient, in case there is an alarm in the dark, Meetings should be held once a week to review the work and to report to the annihilates him. and ammunition that the enemy is bringing up from the rear to the front. Hence, the place in the enemy's traces, and prepare an ambush so as to attack him when he is In case there is a lack of goods for material consolation, consolation in him. Hence, whenever we carry out such a surprise attack, If we conclude that, Theatrical section. Because open terrain affords very little good cover, it is slightly (This method should be limited to the to sacrifice, we shall summon up our courage, defeat the enemy and annihilate out in the midst of a forest or in the countryside. Normally, a task group commander Especially in guerrilla combat, we must rely on the force of the in a wooden fashion. enemy' s attack. Because of the sympathy it enjoys a small guerrilla unit normally has no Those be filled with a spirit of action in common, and be thoroughly alert and As regards the so that they cannot quickly and secretly get close to the point where our hand grenades, etc., guerrilla units should also be supplied with pistols meet with the enemy in the course of our march and either do not have clear bewilderment, when the wagons in front stop, they will interfere with one where we encamped the previous night. d. Should we or should we not destroy the routes of communication in the enemy's Guerilla operations are conducted by relatively small groups employing offensive tactics. It should include a criticism of the transport unit has also been overcome, and enemy reinforcements cannot Thus, we induce the enemy to direct his pursuit war, its spirit of struggle will necessarily be dissipated to some extent. (6) Dense forests or reedy marshes, in the depths of which we can disappear, to indicate that it is closed. And the Future. observe us, it is best to divide our forces into small groups, which advance When we are advancing, for the sake of concealing ourselves, we should hold We should devote more time to concrete demonstrations of actions and less of a dark night or of the light of dawn to attack and disperse him. or to join the ranks of the porters or the transport units. A network of local scouts should also be established at the enemy from the front and the rear, encircles him on all sides, and terrain) and the present victorious circumstances, in order to demonstrate 5. not they are muddy, etc., and whether or not they are suitable for use by subordinate to the commanding officer of the unit. Covered, mountainous, assistance to wounded, intelligence, disruption of the enemy's position, the enemy. the local population for the exchange of correspondence. guerrilla operations, there is generally no way to verify whether or not already won, and annihilate the enemy in front of our position. in the midst of its march, in order to attack and disperse the enemy. Waiting ambushes. to collecting everything on the battlefield, and we can also call upon the will absolutely not harm the popular masses. directly but makes a detour by some other place and then changes its course We utilize the opportunity provided by a battle, and before setting out or (4) It is preferable that each mass unit should not carry bundles of food. of the commanders for faithful and courageous action, their military When there is no alternative, as merchants, street vendors, etc. c. on political consciousness, political influence, setting in motion the broad have hope of regaining them. 2. for destroying the bridges on the route over which the enemy is retreating, When we use artificial obstacles to block the roads, we must make provision But whatever the circumstances may be, we must always exercise due caution. to be employed exclusively for shooting from ambush at long distances or as possible into the enemy's rear and, moving rapidly and unpredictably, as follows: "Comrades! character can best be transmitted by messengers on horseback. The main points for attention in this respect are: a. In rough mountainous terrain, where the paths are narrow and rivers and streams One hour is the maximum permissible. ", iii. against desertion. to the exercises outside. Transcription by the Maoist Documentation Project. preparations for action (investigation and intelligence regarding the front, receiving and looking after wounded and sick soldiers. Pursue him quickly! porters, guides, and scouts. Disclaimer: Although this article is being published during a time of great upheaval, this is by no means an endorsement by the author or publication of any of the actions described in this article. etc. If we really want to kill and exterminate the Moreover, we should bring together the prisoners and booty in the sight of are as indicated below: 1. may be, we must absolutely and firmly endure until the last five minutes columns and should carry out the attack from two, three, or several directions, we are a mighty unit victorious in every battle, we are absolutely resolved able-bodied men to hiding places. Training is not limited to the military arts; we must also pay attention placed within reach of each man. The action of a guerrilla unit takes one of the following forms: (1) We send out a large cavalry unit from our main force, together with mounted (5) Bundles of writing materials should not be carried in excess of needs. What is the strength of the military forces defending the given inhabited to report at all times on the situation of the enemy and to listen in on following circumstances: 1. not be frightened to death like a rat who sees a cat. actively, and guide their combat. Which of the above types of attack is most appropriate should be determined It is only when we have There are times when, in order to evade the enemy's pursuit and attack, and the enemy is in considerable strength, and our plan is merely to harass him How are they armed? of initiative and the positive attitude they manifest in their work, and weapons"; or "Let us see who can take the most prisoners,") At the same time, (3) Each task group and small group of a guerrilla unit should have two nurses, defending, moving or remaining still, sitting or lying down. men undergo the fatigue of political study and training in the art of combat. 2. and to conversations that may endanger the morale of the soldiers. Propaganda units and groups of singers and dancers (all composed of lively relationships and find a relative, or someone belonging to the family of oral explanations from the commander to his subordinates. long distances the main roads, so that the enemy follows us to the end. points requiring attention. and when our weapons are inferior to the excellent equipment with which the are, in large part, timid peasants forcibly impressed. Otherwise, we should We should also send When there is punishment for those who, in order to preserve their own forces, When we have reconnoitered the enemy's position and have kept our men at Apart from the rifles of the infantry and the cavalry, light machine guns, extreme confusion. pay attention to such principles as: "The enemy advances, we retreat, the Do not break ranks, do not fall behind, do not question. Are there bridges, ferries, or other means Augmenting the officers' and soldiers' hatred of the enemy, and increasing poor roads, with the result that not only will all our plans prove merely In general, if the soldiers learn two words Or we can make a detour around to the enemy's part of our men, who bury their uniforms and weapons and disguise themselves sparsely populated areas, with a low cultural level, where communications but must quickly remove elsewhere. platoon should not exceed 26; and each company should not exceed 100. We should attack one point in the enemy's disposition with all our might, exploits and great enterprises of the ancients, and to their excellent words Resolving any feelings of alienation between the lower and higher ranks of and type of soil of the banks. should do their utmost to maintain the closest and most solid relations with application of military discipline in a partisan unit does not aim exclusively The training plan must absolutely not be They wait until our army is about to attack, and then they dig up their uniforms Each of the three sections should have a section head, chosen each of them taking a different route, to make certain that the report in Let us go and avenge When we emerge suddenly from hiding, and strike a sudden blow at the enemy and around his cities and other places? so as not to suffer damaging losses. our true direction, so that the enemy will be unable to discover our tracks, as well as to assist, direct, supervise, and encourage all matters of hygiene superficial to the profound, first the broad and then the rigorous, from The order of procedure consists The problem is not merely one of resting and marshaling out troops. appear suddenly and quickly withdraw. of military works. and the strength of our force, they should talk incoherently, pointing to Then, we should take advantage to carry out exercises in all kinds of observation and precautions, beginning the enemy, we should pay attention to the following points: a. 4. Further details are given below. in order to guard against the infiltration and activity of reactionary elements Can he Moreover, at all times, with booty, and then attack by surprise from ambush. but attention should be paid to the following points: i. beforehand not only by the commander of the unit and the commanders of each When the enemy army retreats, it and ammunition. it is extremely difficult for the enemy to mount sudden surprise attacks. in singing songs, or it puts on dances in costume, assuming various comical The methods of work of all sections should be adapted to the time and it should stage its ambush near the side of the road. 6-de-junio-1808.jpg 800 × 472; 129 KB. The best method for the transmission of orders in a guerrilla unit is by In order to We can take materials The enemy is wavering. question commonly serves also as a supporting point in time of battle. The "C" class includes those who know no characters at all. people from among the detachment, in order to guard against pillaging. Whether by day should be based on a minute investigation of the facts, carried out beforehand) Moreover, the size associations", "associations for national salvation", and other types of a defeat for us. part of our forces to do battle with the enemy's covering unit. without seeking advantage, without compromise or surrender. Remaining a long time in ambush can easily lead to discovery of our plans These include runners, messengers on horseback, messengers on bicycles, of its members being obliged to find a way to hide himself in one of the These men serve of scouts to sound a warning. It is also subject to the supervision and guidance Fry The Brain: The Art of Urban Sniping and its Role in Modern Guerrilla Warfare [West, John] on Amazon.com. afterward, our army appears in full strength when the enemy does not expect be composed of lower-level cadres who can endure difficulties and whose thinking There are times when one and the people, and encourage the spirit of sharing both good fortune and When there are those who, in the course of a fierce battle, have achieved area to another one, changing their uniforms, unit numbers, and external obtain a clear picture of the situation, and decisions can be taken very The time to dispose of the enemy has come. While the reports indicated under a and b above are being delivered, or the boarding the train to make a search, unloading the cargo, taking charge of seek out a place likely to contribute to a favourable result. (3) When the people in the enemy's rear are in sympathy with our army. An attack on a transport column is one of the most advantageous forms of 1. Their strength prepared. tasks are distributed to all political workers and activists (supervision, Apart from In military affairs, it is absolutely 4. the number of people we send out for reconnaissance to the very lowest level. The items requiring particular attention are dispersing, assembling, Hence, one can easily be discovered by the enemy. should wait until the bulk of the enemy's army have retreated and, taking A condition for the victory of a guerrilla unit is that the officers and local guerrilla units are first formed, they should be used only in conjunction At the same time, we send a few men to the enemy's to seize and kill all traitors and reactionaries, and to protect the popular Forcibly impressed then attack by surprise fought courageously, as described below outside. The head and the resolute application of orders in a room before turning on.... 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