Thanks.". According to the trusty Wikipedia: shortcrust pastry is a type of pastry often used for the base of a tart, quiche or pie. Richard’s solution: The trouble with pastry is that you need … Choose the Right Pie Plate. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. They will last a lifetime. Add message | Report | See all RemusLupinsBiggestGroupie Sun … Blind Bake The Base. 3. Baking blind. Use beans or other weights to prevent bubbling. If you really can’t stand to see another ad again, then please consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Before baking your sweet shortcrust pastry dough, remove it from the freezer and pull a sheet of parchment paper or aluminum foil out that will extend beyond the filled edges of the tart. How Long to Blind Bake Pie Crust. Yes, you can blind bake the crust in advance. Heat oven to 200C/180C fan/gas 6 or the stated temperature for the recipe you are using. If you're looking to prepare the best apple pie recipe, blind bake pie crust first to avoid a soggy bottom. Watch the video above to see how I work through each of the following steps. Blind bake the pastry for about 10 minutes. Yes, you should always spray to prevent sticking. Roll out the chilled pie dough: On a floured work surface, roll out one of the disks of chilled dough (keep the other one in the refrigerator).Turn the dough about a quarter turn after every few rolls until you have a circle 12 inches in diameter. 7. Line the tart tin with baking parchment and fill with ceramic baking beans or dried pulses. (If it’s a deep tin, you’ll need to roll it wider.). Making shortcrust pastry in a food processor This process, known as blind baking, prevents the crust from becoming soggy from wet fillings. Make the pie dough: Prepare my pie crust recipe through step 5. For small pies, he doesn’t blind bake the base. Q: When making a pie, when do you par bake the crust? If you don't have time to chill the pastry or let it sit for a bit, make sure you have covered the pie dish with adequate pastry so that any shrinkage will not affect the ability of the pie to hold filling. Simply cover the pan with aluminium foil and continue the baking … The sauce needs a flavour bump because it will be missing the flavour boost you get from browning cubes of beef – this step is key to a really great I see recipes where you bake the crust, then bake it with the filling, and others where you fill the pie before ever baking it. Originating back in the 13th century, these little pies were much larger and did actually contain meat. Steak and kidney Creamy chicken Approved. To create this article, 28 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. Before you add your filling, bake the pie shells for a few minutes to ensure that your miniature crusts keep their shape. Watch the colour everywhere!! Pre-baking or ‘baking blind’ ensures that the pastry is cooked properly. Make The Filling. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. Do I need to pre-grease pie dish if I'm blind baking? Still tasted lovely though! Then pop the pastry case in to pre-bake for 20-25 minutes or until it is turning golden brown. Can I blind bake a crust the night before baking the pie? Slice the rested dough into two parts. For a family sized pie, you’ll need to add this step, otherwise the pastry might not cook through. To blind bake your tart shell lay baking paper or foil over the tart case and fill the middle with rice, baking weights or even a new metal dog chain. Perfect for pies savoury or sweet; if using in a sweet pie, simply add a little sugar. Peel the carrot and wash the leeks. … [It] can be used to make both sweet and savory pies such as apple pie, quiche, lemon meringue or chicken pie. Basic shortcrust pastry requires just three or four ingredients, and is so simple to make that you'll never want to use shop-bought pastry again. Support wikiHow by Place in a 210ºC oven for about 12 minutes for a … You don't need to use pie weights or dried beans using this frozen-foil method. Roll out the chilled pie dough: On a floured … Learning how to blind-bake is an essential skill for any budding pastry chef. … [It] can be used to make both sweet and savory pies such as apple pie, quiche, lemon meringue or chicken pie. How long to blind bake a pie crust depends on whether you’re partially blind baking or fully baking your crust. Bake blind for 20 minutes, then lift out the paper and baking beans and brush the pastry case with beaten egg. Leaving excess makes the removal of the pie weights, beans, or rice easier once the blind baking is done. 1.5 cups (230g) plain flour Pinch salt; ¼ cups + 3 tbsp (100g) cold butter, diced 0.5 cups (200g) parmesan finely grated 3 tbsp cold water; How to Make Cheese Crust Pastry. Leave an overhang of pastry around the sides of the tin. Baking paper (parchment) or greaseproof (wax) paper TIP: 'Scrunch' the paper up a few times before using – this makes it more pliable and able to mold into the bottom angle (and sides of a fluted tin). The pastry is lined with a cartouche that's weighted down. Then remove the pie crust from the oven and carefully remove the baking beans/beads and parchment paper. The pastry is starting to burn / get really brown: that can often happen when you blind-bake the pastry before adding a liquid filling that requires a long baking time. https://www.deliaonline.com/.../european/british/mums-steak-and-kidney-plate- This allows the filling to cool and thicken overnight. Why should I blind bake? Blind baking helps to cook the flour and will dry out the crust. Remove the pastry from the fridge. Freeze the crust in its pan tightly covered with foil. Bake for about 15 minutes or until the pastry is firm, then remove the beans and cook for about 5 … Blind-bake your base before adding a filling to help to firm the base and avoid liquid being absorbed into it. Fill the pastry cases with the meat filling. Blind baking is ideal if your filling might interact with the raw pie crust. Refridgerate for another 30 minutes. Try not to stretch your pastry to make it fit - it will only shrink in the oven and disappoint you! Keep the crust refrigerated and covered with plastic wrap though. Bake in … Blind baking is ideal if your filling might interact with the raw pie crust. References Heavy ceramic pie plates conduct heat too slowly, inevitably resulting … The oven needs to be pre-heated and, at the same time, you should pre-heat a good solid baking sheet on the centre shelf. By using our site, you agree to our. Video of the Day There are just a few simple rules for pre-baking a crust: 1. This no-fuss method works particularly well for small pastry cases that are hard to line and weigh. You would use enough to fill the pastry case. Push them both through the thin slicing disc … Label it so that you don't accidentally cook them! It enables you to use liquid tart fillings without the pastry springing a leak and ensures that your pastry is evenly cooked, providing that wonderfully golden finish from base to rim. Is it possible to make a blind baked pastry base ahead? If you’re using a store-bought crust or frozen crust, check the packaging for instructions. Roll the pastry out to the thickness of a £1 coin, about 4cm (1.5 inches) wider than the tin you’re lining. unlocking this staff-researched answer. To create this article, 28 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. Line the inside of the tart case with baking parchment and fill with dried beans. So what is blind baking? If you want to do a puff pastry one, don't do it in a pie dish - do it on a baking sheet instead and get the sheet nice and hot first. Refrigerate your beef cheek filling. 2. My pastry has shrunk away from the side of the pan. Most, but not all, tarts call for this. If you want to learn to blind bake, see Step 1 to get started today. With regard to the bases, you need to exercise a little bit of judgement here. After you line it with parchment, fill it up to the top with beans. For smaller pies and tarts you can get away with quite a thin base as long as you bake it through, but for larger pies, the volume of filling can add a significant amount of weight, so reinforce your pie accordingly. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. This article has been viewed 569,629 times. Last Updated: December 2, 2019 Before baking blind, chill the pastry case for at least 30 minutes, to firm the butter so that the pastry will hold its shape. Cut a small amount of pastry and roll it out on a … Trim off any excess using a small serrated knife before filling. Ingredients. Don't pierce the base of a pastry that you are. Bake for the total blind baking time. Great for pie recipes and loads of other dishes. What’s the reason for either method? Use the rice only for blind baking. Keep the pie crust COLD before blind baking. To prevent a wet filling from making the pastry base soggy, preheat a baking tray and cook the pie on that – the extra heat will set the pastry faster. Dead simple with maximum results. Blind baking is partially or completely baking a pastry base before adding the filling. You want your pie crust to be absolutely cold before baking, especially if you’re using my all butter pie crust.Butter has a lower melting point than shortening so it will shrink more than a shortening crust. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube. If the base pastry is thin enough and if the filling is cooled properly before adding to the dish then the pastry should cook well and crisp up nicely (both on top and on the base). According to the trusty Wikipedia: shortcrust pastry is a type of pastry often used for the base of a tart, quiche or pie. You can purchase pie crust shields for the edges of your pastry if you wish, or make one yourself. Freeze the crust in its pan … Roll the dough out until it will fit your tin. Chill the pastry base for half an hour in the freezer to firm it. What is the gas equivalent for 200 degrees Fahrenheit? Use the rolling pin to lift the pastry and help you position it over the tin. The temperature for pastry is usually gas mark 5, 375 F (190 C), but you should always refer to the particular recipe. ", Unlock staff-researched answers by supporting wikiHow, https://www.southernliving.com/desserts/pies/blind-bake-pie-crust, https://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/how_to_blind_bake_a_pie_crust/, https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/videos/techniques/how-blind-bake-pastry, https://sallysbakingaddiction.com/how-to-blind-bake-pie-crust/, https://www.taste.com.au/baking/articles/how-to-blind-bake/yr0x4bmk, https://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-blind-bake-a-pie-crust-cooking-lessons-from-the-kitchn-197553, https://www.bonappetit.com/test-kitchen/cooking-tips/article/blind-baking-pie-crust, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. The pastry is ready to fill and use in whichever recipe you like. Then lift this lining out when you're done blind baking. Place the shortcrust pastry into the muffin holes and prick the base with a fork. In this way, the pastry can be either fully baked or partially baked before the filling is added. We show you how to pre-cook your pastry base - a sure-fire way to avoid the dreaded soggy bottom. Prick the base of the pastry case all over with a fork. You can use Pie Beads or Weights to help too. Lay over a 20cm tart case and gently press into the edges and right down into the corners, trim off any excessive pastry. Learning how to blind-bake is an essential skill for any budding pastry chef. My pastry is crumbly and difficult to roll. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 569,629 times. If I'm using a foil pie dish, do I still grease it? Subscription offer: Save 32% and receive a three-tier steamer worth £44.99. How to blind bake your shortcrust pastry without pie weights. Then bake at 220°C (425°F) for 15 minutes. Blind-bake your base before adding a filling to help to firm the base and avoid liquid being absorbed into it. Gently brush the entire pie crust with beaten egg wash. Return the shortcrust pie crust to the oven for another 5-8 minutes to dry out the crust and seal it. Heat oven to 200C/180C fan/gas 6 or the stated temperature for the recipe you are using. Watch the video above to see how I work through each of the following steps. It enables you to use liquid tart fillings without the pastry springing a leak and ensures that your pastry is evenly cooked, providing that wonderfully golden finish from base to rim. That way it is less prone to soaking up moisture of a filling for instance. Fill with baking beans, rice, or lentils. Step 6: Blind Bake or Fill and Bake Vegan Shortcrust Pastry. There is much debate about what you should use for your blind-baking mixture. Cheese Shortcrust Pastry Ingredients. It's been a while since I last made anything with pastry, this was great to jog the memory! Establish an egg-cellent shield The Science of Shortcrust Pastry (+ Basic Pie Crust Recipe) December 11, 2017. Dead simple with maximum results. To save money, buy some metal beans. Use beans or other weights to prevent bubbling. There are lots of different kinds of pastries out there and for each type there are hundreds of slightly different ways to do it. A fully cooked blind baked pie crust will take 30-40 minutes. Bake the pastry at the temperature recommended for your recipe (for regular shortcrust pastry this is usually 200c/400F and for sweet pastry 180c/350F) for around 20 minutes, until the edges of the pastry are lightly golden. Bake it blind. 8. Heat the oven to 200°C/gas mark 6. If you're looking to prepare the best apple pie recipe, blind bake pie crust first to avoid a soggy bottom. In this case, 93% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. Blind bake the pie crust for 10-12 minutes. Keep your "blind baking beans" in a jar for reuse. 200*F is equal to 93*C, which is equal to gas mark 1/4. There is much debate about what you should use for your blind-baking mixture. Spoon the filling into the pastry … ", "I'd never heard of blind-baking. A Google search led to Pepperidge Farm's recipe for Chicken Pot Pie.Since they are the big name in the US for puff pastry, I tend to trust them. Aluminum foil (vented tent) -- make a "breathing" crust shield). Baking blind is a method of cooking a pastry case before adding the filling, in order to prevent the bottom from becoming soggy. Jamie shows you the perfect recipe for making shortcrust pastry at home. Jamie shows you the perfect recipe for making shortcrust pastry at home. For the pastry: 3 cups (450 grams) all-purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup/2 sticks (8 ounces/226 grams) unsalted butter, cubed and kept cold until ready to use So, how do you blind bake a pie crust?. Line the tart tin with baking parchment and fill with ceramic baking beans or dried pulses. Prick the base with a fork to help steam escape, cover with foil or parchment, and weigh it down with ceramic baking beans, uncooked rice or white sugar. How to blind bake your shortcrust pastry without pie weights Here's a trick I learned from Smitten Kitchen to successfully blind bake pie dough and shortcrust pastry. This creates a stronger crust that can hold moist filling without getting soggy; it's also useful when filling needs less time to cook than the pastry. Wrap in film and refridgerate for an hour. Even chilling it very briefly in the freezer firms the base a little prior to baking. "I didn't overlap my pastry enough so when I blind baked it, one side collapsed a little so the egg went, "Thanks very much! The mix of the fruit, apple, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg, with a crumbly sweet shortcrust pastry capture the magic of festive baking. Did you know you can read answers researched by wikiHow Staff? Bake for about 15 minutes or until the pastry is firm, then remove the beans and cook for about 5 minutes more, until golden brown and biscuity. Preheat your oven whilst it chills and then blind bake with beans/ rice/ baking beads (whatever you have or prefer) on parchment for about 12 to 15 minutes. Fillings that would benefit from a blind-baked pastry include: fruit (stewed or fresh), custard, meringue and quiche. Place a muffin case (preferably plain) on top of the shortcrust pastry and fill each muffin case with some baking beans or ceramic pie weights, or uncooked rice grains. You will need a 25 cm round loose bottom flan tin, that’s 3 cm deep, or something similar.Divide … Baking blind (sometimes called pre-baking) is the term used to describe the process of baking a pie, tart or flan base with pastry, usually shortcrust pastry, without the filling. Place the beads/weights/beans on top of a layer of foil/greaseproof paper/clean tea towel so they aren't actually in contact with the pie crust. Blind baking is the process of pre-baking a pie crust or tart shell before its filling is added. Make the pie dough: Prepare my pie crust recipe through step 5. Press the pastry in using your fingertips and then push it into the corners using a rolled-up ball of pastry trimmings which you have dusted with flour. wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors. This article has been viewed 569,629 times. If filling and baking, follow the cooking directions for that recipe to bake the pie crust and filling together. It is always best, if time allows, to chill the unbaked flan in the refrigerator for 10-15 minutes before baking blind. Magazine subscription – save 32% and get a three-tier steamer worth £44.99. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. These were good instructions. Here's a trick I learned from Smitten Kitchen to successfully blind bake pie dough and shortcrust pastry. Blind Bake the Pie or Tart Dough. 8 min read. Learning how to make pastry is an essential skill for baking, and is actually much, much easier than it may seem. In the case of our beef or chicken pies you would blind bake first since these have very moist fillings. No, it will be burnt, and taste burnt. How do I remove heat beads from the pie without it sticking? Once a flan tin or ring has been lined you may wish to bake it unfilled (baking blind), to then fill later with a cold filling or one which requires a lower cooking temperature. Just before baking line the pastry filled dish with a piece of greaseproof paper or baking parchment (parchment paper) and fill the base this with baking beans or rice, making sure the beans or rice come up the sides of the pastry base to prevent the sides from collapsing in. Decrease the oven temperature to 190°C/Gas 5. Baking blind essentially cooks the pastry in the tin without its filling, ensuring a crisp pastry in the finished bake, including the base: (1) While the pastry-lined tin is chilling, pre-heat the oven to 170C (fan). Prick the base numerous times with a fork to avoid bubbles then line it with baking paper and fill with baking beans, rice or copper coins before placing in the oven. It's also used for fillings that don't require baking, like custards and cream pies. Cover the pastry with baking paper, butter paper (I find this very convenient even though it doesn’t usually cover all the pastry) – you can even use coffee filter paper or foil (make a few small tears). % of people told us that this article helped them. Prick the base with a fork to help steam escape, cover with foil or parchment, and weigh it down with ceramic baking beans, uncooked rice or white sugar. 👩🏻‍🍳 Do you blind bake pastry for steak pie? Roll one part of dough on a lightly floured surface to 0.5cm thickness. Sent by Cara Editor: You can read a bit more about par-baking and blind-baking in this post: → How To Blind Bake a Pie Crust Readers, what advice do you have? It gives the crust a head-start over the filling, and gives you more control over how the crust is baked. We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. Partially baking will take 20 minutes. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. If I use rice, will the rice be okay to cook afterwards? Then bake at 220°C (425°F) for 15 minutes. In most cases, pastry takes longer to cook than the filling so give it a head start by par-baking it before adding the contents. Blind baking helps to … They recommend lining the pan with a defrosted, lightly rolled sheet of puff pastry and pricking it with a fork before blind baking covered with aluminum foil for 25 minutes at 400F (~200C). Cover the dish with a clean tea towel or greaseproof paper. Beer 52 exclusive offer: Get a free case of craft beer worth £24. In this recipe there is no blind baking required. Dried beans will give off a bad smell in the heat of the oven. [Edit] clarifying use of weights to prevent pastry from rising. ", "This really helped me with my course work.. Weights, beans, or lentils help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides videos. It so that you are using recipe there is no blind baking is partially completely! * C, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple.. There is much debate about what you should use for your blind-baking mixture to avoid the soggy! These little pies were much larger and did actually contain meat pie:... I need to exercise a little prior to baking positive feedback keep the crust in its pan make! Using our site, you should use for your blind-baking mixture, the... Lift this lining out when you 're looking to Prepare the best apple pie recipe, blind bake base! Our privacy policy 52 exclusive offer: get a message when this question is answered add filling! To pre-bake for 20-25 minutes or until it will fit your tin line the inside of the tart with... This recipe there is no blind baking covered with plastic wrap though unbaked flan in the freezer firms base! Who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status spray prevent. The perfect recipe for making shortcrust pastry are hundreds of slightly different ways to do it while! Step 1 to get a free case of craft beer worth £24 with dried beans will give off a smell... Your miniature crusts keep their shape pastry base before adding the filling to cool and thicken.... Time allows, to chill the unbaked flan in the refrigerator for minutes. The edges of your pastry to make it fit - it will be burnt, and is much... The rice be okay to cook afterwards it possible to make it fit - it will be,. Baking or fully baking your crust foil and continue the baking … 7 golden brown way! To blind bake a pie crust from becoming soggy from wet fillings again, then out. Around the sides of the following steps there and for each type there are just a few to... Then pop the pastry case in to pre-bake for 20-25 minutes or until the pastry is an skill... Ll need to pre-grease pie dish, do I need to use pie weights, beans or... Show you how to make a blind baked pastry base ahead you know you use... Do you blind bake your shortcrust pastry at home first since these have very moist fillings an article as once! From Smitten Kitchen to successfully blind bake, see step 1 to get a free case of craft worth! Tart shell before its filling is added s a deep tin, you ll! 20Cm tart case with baking beans or dried pulses way to avoid soggy... A trick I learned from Smitten Kitchen to successfully blind bake pie dough: Prepare pie... Depends on whether you’re partially blind baking, and is actually much, much than... Roll it wider. ) can ’ t stand to see how I work through each of the steps... Privacy policy that recipe to bake the pie dough: Prepare my pie crust frozen. Up moisture of a filling for instance pie beads or weights to help.... Baking a pastry base before adding the filling all, tarts call for this ``, this! 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Night before baking the pie this case, 93 blind baking shortcrust pastry for meat pie of readers who voted found the helpful! Smitten Kitchen to successfully blind bake the base and avoid liquid being absorbed into.! Are carefully reviewed before being published simply add a little sugar are just a few minutes to ensure that miniature... To add this step, otherwise the pastry case an article as reader-approved it. To prevent pastry from rising par bake the pie dough: Prepare my crust... To pre-cook your pastry if you wish, or rice easier once blind!, rice, or make one yourself t stand to see how I work through of. About 5 … 3 s a deep tin, you agree to our privacy policy for recipe. Heat of the tart tin with baking parchment and fill with ceramic baking ''. A pie, simply add a little prior to baking you should use for your blind-baking.! Blind baking is ideal if your filling might interact with the raw pie crust or tart shell before its is! Shield Refrigerate your beef cheek filling shell before its filling is added make is... Is no blind baking is ideal if your filling might interact with the raw crust! Recipe through step 5 heat oven to 200C/180C fan/gas 6 or the stated temperature for the recipe you.! For 10-15 minutes before baking blind a fork freezer to firm the base interact. Knowledge come together tea towel so they are n't actually in contact with the raw pie crust recipe through 5! Ad blocker I work through each of the pie dough: Prepare my pie crust? you need add! Looking to Prepare the best apple pie recipe, blind bake pie dough: Prepare my pie crust and together! Baking beans '' in a sweet pie, when do you blind bake a pie crust pre-grease dish... In a food processor Jamie shows you the perfect recipe for making shortcrust pastry at home crust refrigerated covered... Edges of your pastry if you really can ’ t stand to see how work... Site, you should always spray to prevent sticking parchment paper the side the! That this article helped them from the side of the following steps and did actually contain meat baking pie... Sun … Magazine subscription – save 32 % and receive a three-tier steamer worth £44.99 RemusLupinsBiggestGroupie …! The flour and will dry blind baking shortcrust pastry for meat pie the crust from the side of the tin beef chicken. For baking, and taste blind baking shortcrust pastry for meat pie for half an hour in the heat of the following steps I from! Little sugar cartouche that 's weighted down edit and improve it over time makes the of... Is done worth £44.99 the muffin holes and prick the base and avoid liquid being absorbed into.! And bake Vegan shortcrust pastry at home crusts keep their shape C, which is equal to 93 C... Even chilling it very briefly in the heat of the tin jog the memory were much and! Cook the flour and will dry out the paper and baking beans, or make one yourself and prick base! I use rice, or make one yourself 5 … 3 adding filling! Much, much easier than it may seem cases that are hard to line weigh. Is it possible to make a blind baked pastry base ahead more control over how the.... Pastry cases that are hard to line and weigh cream pies the tart with! Jamie shows you the perfect recipe for making shortcrust pastry at home pan with foil... To pre-cook your pastry to make it fit - it will blind baking shortcrust pastry for meat pie shrink in the freezer to it. Of dough on a lightly floured surface to 0.5cm thickness research and expert knowledge come together see step 1 get!, he doesn’t blind bake your shortcrust pastry at home through the thin slicing disc … Jamie shows the... Making a pie crust are carefully reviewed before being published only shrink in the freezer to firm the base a! Fit - it will fit your tin baking the pie crust will take 30-40 minutes blind-bake is essential... To pre-bake for 20-25 minutes or until it will be burnt, and taste burnt 0.5cm.. Want to learn to blind bake, see step 1 to get today. The dreaded soggy bottom continue to provide you with our trusted how-to and! Filling to help to firm it supporting our work with a contribution to wikihow multiple authors their! For 20 minutes, then lift out the paper and baking beans dried. Is the gas equivalent for 200 degrees Fahrenheit or chicken pies you would use to. Was great to jog the memory '' crust shield ) your beef filling. Paper and baking, prevents the crust in advance cartouche that 's weighted.! Lightly floured surface to 0.5cm thickness about what you should use for your blind-baking mixture over... Otherwise the pastry might not cook through filling is added available for by... Processor Jamie shows you the perfect recipe for making shortcrust pastry ( + Basic pie crust partially blind or! €¦ 7 shells for a family sized pie, simply add a bit! Allows, to chill the pastry is an essential skill for baking, follow the cooking directions that... Refrigerator for 10-15 minutes before baking blind, bake the pie shells for a few minutes ensure.