These energy conservation and temperature control strategies must not interfere with providing minimum outside air ventilation when the building is occupied. DOW Chemical Company's estimate for ventilation systems maintenance ranges from $0.17 to $0.25/sq.ft/yr [Ex. During the last 25 years, technical and socioeconomic changes have profoundly influenced the methods employed to plan, design, construct and operate buildings. Table III-8. D. Case Reports This extensive amount of data increases confidence that the associations seen between ETS exposure and the development of lung cancer is externally consistent and is not due to artifacts or a product of some unidentified, indirect factors unlikely to be common to all of the studies. 4-288] and Sexton et al. Based on results adjusted for non-response and weighted to reflect national estimates, 18.81 percent reported exposure to ETS. 4-254]. OSHA requests more information on the effects of indoor air on materials and equipment. Nothing in this proposed rule would change the position that the Agency has taken in cases such as Anning-Johnson (4 OSH Cas. In the Benzene case, the Supreme Court held that section 3(8) of the Act, which defines a "occupational safety and health standard" as a "requirement reasonably necessary or appropriate" to promote safety or health requires that, before promulgating a standard, the Secretary must find, "on the basis of substantial evidence, that it is at least more likely than not that long-term exposure to [the hazard without new regulation] presents a significant risk of material health impairment." The surgery is done under general anesthesia (an-es-THEEZ-ya). E. OSHA's Risk Estimates - Indoor Air Quality. A U.K. study of exposure to ETS in 20 nonsmoking men whose wives smoked showed that 78% of the men's reported hours of exposure came from outside the home; by contrast, 90% of the ETS exposure of 101 nonsmoking men whose wives did not smoke was reported to come from non-domestic microenvironments [Ex. Conclusion 4-18, 4-37, 4-62, 4-148, 4-173, 4-176, 4-178, 4-180, 4-209, 4-210, 4-278, 4-295, 4-321]. The carcinogenicity of ETS discounts the use of general ventilation as an engineering control for this contaminant. 4-155, 4-309] and the chief effort associated with pharmacokinetic model parameterization in the human is the determination of the necessary level of detail for the physiological description, grouping of the tissues not meriting a separate description into pharmacokinetically similar groups, and the association of the proper volume and flow data with the selected groupings. The term "Air contaminants" refers to substances contained in the vapors from paint, cleaning chemicals, pesticides, solvents, particulates, outdoor air pollutants and other airborne substances which may cause material impairment to the health of employees working within the nonindustrial environment. At UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, we believe parents and guardians can contribute to the success of this surgery and invite you to participate.Please read the following information to learn about the surgery and how you can help. Any party requesting more than ten (10) minutes for presentation at the informal public hearing, or who intends to submit documentary evidence, must provide in quadruplicate the testimony and evidence to be presented at the informal public hearing. 4-40, 4-80]. 4-2] found that synergistic effects may occur when one strong indoor irritant interacts with other indoor contaminants present at low-level concentrations. 4-80]. In almost all buildings the performance of the ventilation system is affected by space temperature control needs. (3) Is the term "building-related illness" sufficiently descriptive and inclusive of the medical conditions that can arise from poor indoor air quality? For more information about research, please call our main office at 412-692-6438. For comparison, the variation in the volume of distribution for cotinine was 5-fold, while for the half-life and volume of distribution of nicotine, the variation was 8-fold and 6-fold, respectively. Example: Three samples are taken and the results are 650 ppm, 710 ppm, and 680 ppm. [Ex. Evaluation of Cotinine as a Biomarker for Studies of ETS and chronic health effects in adults differ by how they define "never smokers", "exsmokers", and how other various levels of ETS exposure are defined, either in nominal, ordinal or interval scales; and whether or not they take into account exposure both in the workplace and at home. Emissions from such equipment (e.g., laser printers) that use chemicals continually, will obtain a steady state concentration dependent upon the chemicals used and frequency of equipment use. In that study, Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders [Ex. Is it unreasonable to expect that due to the complexity of building systems, a single designated person within a facility can successfully oversee and ensure adequate operation of all building systems that affect indoor air quality? OSHA, therefore, believes that it is necessary to require maintenance of the HVAC system components that directly affect IAQ, since failure to do so results in the degradation of IAQ. Cancer has also been reported to be associated with poor indoor air quality. The foreword of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 states "with respect to tobacco smoke and other contaminants, this standard does not, and cannot, ensure the avoidance of all possible adverse health effects, but it reflects recognized consensus criteria and guidance." As the insured firm has paid an insurance company to assume some of the risks, that firm has less reason to exercise the diligence necessary to avoid losses. C. Exposure Studies - Viruses. There is evidence that ETS exposure can cause platelets to become more easily activated thus predisposing the platelets to become involved in forming clots and atherosclerotic plaques. Environmental Impact 4-21]. (4) The following additional information, if available, shall be retained by the employer to assist in potential indoor air quality evaluations: (iii) HVAC systems testing, adjusting and balancing reports; (5) The employer shall establish a written record of employee complaints of signs or symptoms that may be related to building-related illness to include at least information on the nature of the illness reported, number of employees affected, date of employee complaint, and remedial action, if any, taken to correct the source of the problem. 4-23] during a study of daily intake of nicotine in smokers versus nonsmokers. Most published risk assessments are based on spousal exposure to ETS. Preferably, the plan should contain the equipment maintenance manuals issued upon completion of facility construction. The irritation effects present as sensory irritation of the skin and upper airways, irritation of eye, nose and throat, dry mucous membranes, erythema, headache, and abnormal taste [Ex. 655(c). (5) Availability. Studies have indicated that the reduction in mitochondrial respiration secondary to ETS exposure is likely due to decreased cytochrome oxidase activity [Exs. For purposes of this analysis, OSHA assumes that the overall effectiveness is, therefore, 80 percent. For example, comment 3-347 responded that "[i]n our closed, indoor work environments, air quality is a very real health and safety concern to professional painters. Application of Pharmacokinetic Modeling for In addition to these market imperfections, externalities occur if employers and employees settle for an inefficiently low level of protection from hazardous substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 4-8]. The mainstream and the sidestream smoke were equally effective in inducing the AHH activity. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is triggered by recurrent exposure to microbials, fumes, vapors, and dusts [Ex. OSHA believes that the standard will not have significant adverse effect on a substantial number of small entities. OSHA believes that written plans are an essential element of an overall compliance program since it will encourage employers to focus on indoor air quality and implement the necessary controls and measures to achieve compliance with the standard [Exs. 4-50, 4-311]. 4-200]. (ii) The employer shall inform employees working in areas to be treated with potentially hazardous chemicals, at least within 24 hours prior to application, of the type of chemicals intended to be applied. 2. In deciding whether to sue, the tort victim must be sure that the size of the claim will be large enough to cover legal expenses. The pectus bar will be removed in approximately 2 to 4 years. Others have reported [Ex. (e) Air Contaminant-Tobacco Smoke It is estimated that 74,201,000 adults (73.01% of the U.S. labor force), employed in sectors covered by this standard, are nonsmokers. - Bacteria The survey reveals that 70 percent of the buildings have air conditioning. ft, Footnote(3) Number of non-problem buildings without maintenance X 14,000 sq. Emissions from equipment, such as computers, will decrease over time compared to emissions from equipment that continually use chemicals. Employer means all persons defined as employers by Sec. The Agency believes that effective system operation and maintenance will necessarily rely upon written information and records such as those relating to design expectations, system capacities, code requirements, maintenance activities and system evaluations. 4-278] found an increased risk for phlegm or sputum in a 3-year longitudinal study (OR=1.41). Nonsmokers reacted more than smokers to the ETS; 36 of the 52 workers who reported eye irritation at work were nonsmokers [Ex. The differences in size distribution for MS and SS particles, as well as the different breathing patterns of smokers and nonsmokers, affect deposition of the produced particle contaminants in various regions of the respiratory tract. 4-37, 4-176, 4-178, 4-321]. Washington, DC. For the purpose of this rulemaking and for deriving a quantitative estimate of occupational risk, OSHA has concentrated on information and data concerning heart disease and lung cancer as potential effects associated with exposure to ETS. Similar types of health effects were reported to the agency in docket comments 3-1, 3-22, 3-58, 3-142C, 3-367, 3-413, 3-529, 3-632, 3-634, 3-642, 3-659, and 3-698. These interactions may lead to longer retention of toxic constituents, thus prolonging the effects on the target organs resulting in tissue injury. The standard covers all OSHA regulated industries: Agriculture, Oil and Gas Extraction (SIC 13), Manufacturing, Transportation, Communications, Wholesale Trade, Retail Trade, Finance, Insurance and Real Estate and Services. They also found that these changes were reversible if the animals were kept without further exposure for an additional 14 days. Tort liability laws and Workers' Compensation provide some protection, but due to market imperfections they have not been sufficient. Neither model appears to contain an explicit description of inhalation or oral exposure, but the necessary equations could easily be added to the existing physiological structures. Moreover, if signs and symptoms are nonspecific - that is, if an illness could be job-related or could have other causes - employees and employers may not link disease with such occupational exposure. With respect to tobacco smoke in workplaces where smoking is not prohibited, paragraph (e)(1) proposes to require the establishment of designated smoking areas. Outside air ventilation rates are based primarily on the need to control odors and carbon dioxide levels (e.g., occupant-generated contaminants or bioeffluents). Why? The formation of DNA adducts is widely accepted as an initial step in the carcinogenesis process. These effects occur not only between substances to enhance their toxicity but also by lowering the resistance to lung infection in susceptible persons. Comment 3-22 responded "[m]y patients find it hard to obtain smoke free workplaces. [Ex. Where the owner of a business is not the owner of the space where such business operates, the owner or landlord of the building will probably also be an employer within the meaning of the Act and the definition contained in this proposal. These include nicotine, carbon monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco glycoproteins. [Ex. 4-64]. 3-32, 3-38, 3-446, 3-500], formaldehyde [Exs. Symptoms may or may not disappear when the employee leaves the building. The average duration of this exposure was 313 minutes for males and 350 minutes for females. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, Office of Regulators Analysis, 1994. 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, 33 U.S.C. These effects are associated with exposure to combustion gases such as carbon monoxide [Exs. This section is effective [DATE 60 DAYS FROM PUBLICATION OF THE FINAL RULE] (2) Start-up dates. Compliance with the indoor air quality provisions set forth in the proposal will substantially reduce these illnesses. Experience with other chemicals has shown that uncertainty in the physiological parameters generally has much less impact on overall model uncertainty because they are known relatively well and are not as influential on model behavior as the distribution and kinetic parameters [Ex. Those individuals who suffer from occupationally related illnesses are cared for and compensated by society through taxpayer support of social programs, including welfare, Social Security, and Medicare. 4-50]. 4-112] was developed to analyze intravenous infusion of nicotine and cotinine and bolus dosing of cotinine in rats. Vinyl chloride These concerns are not just relevant to office workers but also to maintenance and other nonindustrial workers that work in indoor environments. OSHA's estimates are based upon the exposure profile (presented in Table VI-5) and OSHA's quantitative risk assessment discussed in detail in the preamble to the proposal). Buildings designed after 1973 have incorporated many energy conservation measures that range from adjusting thermal comfort zones to increased awareness of lighting efficiency, to designing new operating methods for "sealed building" [Ex.3-1159, p.1]. Issues of particular concern identified in the comments, in addition to health effects considerations, include the lack of ventilation performance standards; the lack of worker training on the operation and maintenance of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; the lack of pollutant source control; and the lack of available technical guidance on IAQ issues and control techniques. 4-105], and Repace and Lowrey [Exs. Usually it will start with liquids on the evening of or the day after surgery, and progress to a regular diet over the next few days. 3-630L]. In 1983, the World Health Organization published a list of eight non-inclusive symptoms that characterize Sick Building Syndrome [Ex. Dust and particulate matter were visible in the air. Such illnesses include sensory irritation when caused by known agents, respiratory allergies, asthma, nosocomial infections, humidifier fever, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Legionnaires' disease, and the signs and symptoms characteristic of exposure to chemical or biologic substances such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, pesticides, endotoxins, or mycotoxins. The duration of exposure, however, was short compared to even a rat's lifetime. (d) Compliance with Related Standards (e) Controls for specific contaminant sources. 3-500]. The Fontham study used multiple sources to ascertain nonsmoking status and validate subject response. This check should conform with the proposals of paragraph (d)(2) which requires an inspection and maintenance of the building systems. 4-83]. Why? ETS is a mixture of irritating gases and carcinogenic tar particles and is considered one of the most widespread and harmful indoor air pollutants. N is the number of nonsmoking workers in the U.S. Pulmonary function study, a breathing test that is sometimes necessary to measure the amount of air your child can get into and out of his lungs. 4-148] found a significant increase in the prevalence of infected sputum, persistent sputum, dyspnea and hypersecretion in passive smokers as compared to controls. Inside air contaminants include tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, combustion gases such as carbon monoxide, and occupant-generated bioeffluents. 3-34, 3-61, 3-505B]; during regular maintenance, as described in subparagraph (d)(1), measure carbon dioxide levels. Exposure to tobacco smoke has been shown to increase the permeability of the respiratory epithelial membrane to macromolecules. These schemes are seldom used in conventional HVAC systems due to their cost, feasibility and compromise of comfort issues. 4-202, 4-5, 4-198, 4-201, 4-203] also exhibited mutagenic activity in this bacterial strain. 3-745] hypothesized that 20% of U.S. office workers are exposed to indoor conditions which manifest as SBS. A rank order assessment, comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the outdoor versus indoor environment is one way of assessing this relationship [Exs. In the case of the kinetic parameters describing clearance, it appears that variability again dominates. Training programs for workers must include at least information on: (1) How to maintain adequate ventilation of air contaminants generated during building cleaning and maintenance, and (2) how to minimize adverse effects on indoor air quality during the use and disposal of chemicals and other agents. The employer shall maintain inspection and maintenance records required to be established under paragraph (d) of this section, which shall include the specific remedial or maintenance actions taken, the name and affiliation of the individual performing the work, and the date of the inspection or maintenance activity. To date, NIOSH has conducted over 1,100 IAQ related investigations, but has not yet evaluated them to provide updated estimates. This further analysis indicates that the workplace is a significant source of ETS exposure for nonsmoking, employed people. However, heart disease runs the gamut from severe to disabling to fatal. The provisions regarding posting of signs are intended to prevent inadvertent entry into smoking areas, and inadvertent smoking in areas other than designated smoking areas. For this risk assessment, OSHA defines "heart disease" to be coronary heart disease excluding strokes, as defined in the Framingham study [Ex. It must be noted that measurements of nicotine and ETS-RSP in indoor spaces do not constitute a direct measure of total exposure. With regard to this proposal, problems with technological feasibility, by and large, are not evident. 2. In the field of occupational safety and health, as practiced by industrial hygienists, it is common practice to perform walk-around inspections. Budgets are usually fixed (in the short run) and compliance costs are paid by reducing funds for other items in the budget. Footnote(11) Dun's Insight computer data base presents data from their three most recent annual industry Norms and Key Business Ratios publications. [Ex. B. Footnote(9) Building systems include but are not limited to the heating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the potable water systems, the energy management system and all other systems in a facility which may impact IAQ. At least once a year carbon dioxide levels should be monitored when the HVAC system is providing minimum outside air ventilation. 4-104]). The compartmental approach has been used to relate steady-state urinary cotinine levels to atmospheric nicotine concentrations [Ex. 3-38, 3-347, 3-412, 3-415, 3-434, 3-444B, 3-500, 3-529]. In some cases some establishments especially the large ones may already have developed such information. Therefore, the number of employees potentially affected is 21 million. When general anesthesia is needed, there are special rules for eating and drinking that must be followed in the hours before surgery. Such constraints are imposed by the building's design, the building's mechanical ventilation system's capabilities, by costs involved in providing adequate ventilation, by the occupant use of the building. In addition, EPA estimates that pollutants found in indoor air are responsible for 2,500 to 6,500 cancer deaths each year" [refer to Ex. 4-29] were unable to confirm published research suggesting that smokers metabolize nicotine and cotinine more rapidly than nonsmokers. To learn more, visit This includes public and private buildings, schools, healthcare facilities, offices and office areas. However, the question then arises as to how much greater than 20% would the incidence have to be to be considered excess and how would one address such issues as statistical significance for any one building. Summary nicotine data analyzed by the U.S. EPA [Ex. OSHA estimate for cases prevented through proposed standard is 80 percent, Table VI-6. A courthouse in San Diego, California [Ex. The human model has recently been expanded to include a physiological description of cotinine as well as a forearm compartment, and is now able to describe nicotine and cotinine kinetics following intravenous infusion of nicotine in humans [Ex. Following are the usual instructions given for eating and drinking. A 1991 survey of company smoking policies shows that of the 85 percent of firms with smoking policies, 34 percent have complete bans and another 34 percent prohibit smoking in all open work areas. Unlike lung cancer and heart disease (health effects associated with exposure to ETS), these effects will not lead to death. A developing body of research indicates that the cardiovascular effects of ETS exposure on the health of nonsmokers include acute effects, such as exacerbation of angina, as well as chronic effects, such as atherosclerosis [Exs. 3-585, 3-635, 3-637, 3-68]. The court denied ASH's petition for review in May 1991, finding that OSHA has reasonably determined that it could not sufficiently quantify the workplace risk associated with tobacco smoke to justify an Emergency Temporary Standard. (1) Effective date. 4-33]. This discussion will indicate not only that exposure occurs, but that nonsmokers absorb ETS components. The first kind of uncertainty embraces those factors which could tend to bias a risk estimate. What methods are available to detect indoor air contaminants? 4-270] found a 3-fold variation in reported half-lives for cotinine. In analyzing the data from CAPS, Jenkins et al. 114] has demonstrated the induction of pulmonary AHH activity in Sprague-Dawley rats and male C57BL mice after exposure to either mainstream or sidestream smoke from University of Kentucky Reference cigarettes (2R1) for seven days per week for 16 weeks. 4-327]. Since no clinical data are available, it is not known how these complaints are related to actual disease, and it is unknown whether these complaints are associated with lost work time, doctor visits or hospital admissions [Ex. Restaurants, transportation, and other indoor spaces with smoking occupants have a generally wider range of particle mass concentrations due to ETS than residential or office environments [Ex. The authority citation for Part 1928 is proposed to continue to read as follows: Authority: Secs. The exposure was doubled-blind, and neither the subjects nor the testers knew the exposure. These infants have higher perinatal mortality [Ex. - Textiles/Cotton These subjects were exposed at 0 and 25 mg/m(3) VOC-contaminated air. The decision to implement any IAQ improvements will be greatly influenced by the relationship between employers and landlords. (2) Is the proposed definition of "building systems" sufficiently descriptive to indicate which systems the employer must attend to in order to assure acceptable indoor air quality? Average air nicotine, carbon monoxide and total particulate concentrations were 1,040 ug/m(3), 60.2 ppm and 32.8 mg/m(3) for high dose group and 30 ug/m(3), 18.8 ppm and 4.0 mg/m(3) for low dose group and < 1 ug/m(3), 3.1 ppm and 0.13 mg/m(3) for the control group. SS is formed in between puff-drawing and is emitted directly from the smoldering tobacco product into the ambient air. The second, and less common method for pectus excavatum repair, is the traditional “open” procedure, in which the surgeon makes a large incision to give a full view of the areas involved in the repair surgery. Respirators may not normally be used in this industry due to the perceived lack of a substance-specific hazard. As a general matter each employer is responsible for the health and safety of his/her own employees. 3-61, 4-33]. Acute ETS exposure also results in an increased platelet aggregation, which is an initial stage of the development of coronary thrombosis or vasoconstriction. Natural ventilation occurs when desired air flows occur through windows, doors, chimneys and other building openings. The carbon monoxide effectively competes with oxygen for the heme group of the hemoglobin molecule in the red blood cell (RBC). 4-33]. 4-311] suggest that average nicotine values in residences where smoking is occurring will average 2 to approximately 10 ug/m(3), with peak values of 0.1 to 14 ug/m(3) as shown in Table III-10. Of the comments that specifically addressed the question of whether OSHA should regulate IAQ, a majority (75%) indicate support for regulation. Heating systems include boilers, furnaces, individual space heaters, and packaged heating units. However, the extent of absorption, distribution, retention and metabolism of these contaminants in the body depends upon various physiological and pharmacokinetic parameters that are influenced by gender, race, age and smoking habits of the exposed individuals. The extent to which outside air ventilation is effective in diluting indoor contaminants depends on how well outside air is mixed with indoor air and is reflected by ventilation efficiency. It is useful to review these for insight into the problems from the victims' point of view. Note: Any information not contained on disk, e.g., studies, articles, etc., must be submitted in quadruplicate to: The Docket Office, Docket No. These specific conclusions of the Agency with respect to what constitutes material impairments were upheld by the Court of Appeals on review1A(6) although the Court disagreed with OSHA on other matters. The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a voluntary organization composed of 58 divisions and 3,100 local units. The polyamines contained in tobacco smoke, spermidine, spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, are believed to have an essential role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. In addition, in evaluating the significance of the risk posed by any particular workplace hazard, the Secretary is entitled to take into consideration not only the rate of risk but the total number of workers exposed to such risk and the absolute magnitude of effects. Responses to the questions raised at various places in the proposal are particularly encouraged. OSHA has, therefore, preliminarily determined that the standard is economically feasible. OSHA is proposing that these standards cover all employees under its jurisdiction, including employees in general industry, shipyards, longshoring, marine terminals, construction, and agriculture. (a) Smoking ordinances(8) and policies. 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Industry categories ( two-digit SIC and by characteristics of the interdependence between outside ventilation... '' means a room in which asbestos-related work was 7 % ( )! Bent during the past two weeks, anyone had smoked in their immediate area... Volatile organic compounds proposed rule would change the position that the employer identify. Triangular fasteners to keep it from moving 4-330 ] exposed rats to MS smoke eventually... Reasonable to require that each establishment has a floor space less than 0.94.... Two models differ by a case-control study of lung cancer rate in high... York 10019, ( 212 ) 245-8000 `` free cooling '' enough of... Nonsmoking women if oxygen demand and decrease myocardial oxygen supply 4-92, 4-132, 4-174, 4-208 4-273. Not the only source of emission through engineering controls is an important of... Nonindustrial multi-employer worksites for purposes of this risk is significant in itself combined... 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Excess risk in only air conditioned buildings is considered to be about the indoor samples of rapid growth, questionnaires... Further describes intolerance to highly scented products such as deodorant soaps, toilet deodorants, mechanical... Victims ' point of view 2.3 million other than work sites is also scheduling an informal Administrative proceeding than! Each day smokers versus nonsmokers. illness describes specific medical conditions of known etiology which can often be by! Effects of indoor air quality standard of relevance, procedure and participation will... For ETS-associated particulates is solanesol, a less serious variant of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and fatigue due to small size! In otherwise healthy individuals its age, types of buildings occupied with with!, cotinine is linearly related to the docket, with adverse impacts those... 480 ppm OSHA used 1.4 as an initial stage of the actual costs of $ 8.0 billion to indoor which... 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