[10] However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation. [21] Another view suggests the reign of Cheras from multiple capitals. Maritime contacts CPM is the part of the uprising of Naxalbari movement in Bengal which leads to the formation of CPI(ML) in India. In 1766, Haider Ali of Mysore defeated the Samoothiri of Kozhikode – an East India Company ally at the time – and absorbed Kozhikode to his state.[78]. According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent). Venad was a kingdom in the south west tip of Kerala, which acted as a buffer between Cheras and Pandyas. He is popularly known as Kerala Simham (Lion of Kerala). Kolattunadu The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Ketalaputo (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha. These two parties have alternating in power since 1982. ", Jeffrey, Robin. [43][44] Kerala witnessed a flourishing period of art, literature, trade and the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. The Kulasekhara dynasty was finally subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of the Pandyas and Cholas. As a result, the land of Kerala arose, and thus was reclaimed from the waters. Many important events associated with history of Kerala can be traced back to Anchuthengu Fort; the ‘Attingal Rebellion of 1721’ wherein the local people, agitated with injustice of Britons sieged the fort and killed a contingent of 140 British traders, is still remembered as the first and one of the very crucial collective moves against the British rule in Kerala. [17], Kerala's dominant rulers of the early historic period were the Cheras, a Tamil dynasty with its headquarters located in Vanchi. [43] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. [4], Perhaps the most famous festival of Kerala, Onam, is deeply rooted in Kerala traditions. Top 10 Famous Historical Fort and Palaces Of Kerala Kerala has got a number of forts and palaces, these magnificent historical landmarks and monuments are the major tourist destinations in the state along with stunningly beautiful Landscapes, Waterfalls, backwaters and Valleys. Cheras Bose, Satheese Chandra and Varughese, Shiju Sam (eds.) 26 December 2011. Kerala has 44 rivers out of which 41 flows westwards while remaining 3 flows to east. Nicknamed the “father of history,” Herodotus is credited with essentially inventing the genre, the origins of which lie in epics and travelogues. ", K. Sreejith, "Naxalites and the New Democratic Revolution: The Kerala Experience 1967-70,", 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, "Symbols akin to Indus valley culture discovered in Kerala", http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/30/stories/2007103054660500.htmHindu.com, Faces of Goa: a journey through the history and cultural revolution of Goa and other communities influenced by the Portuguese, The philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta, "Conundrum of Kerala's struggling economy by Soutik Biswas", "Refworld | India: 1. Popularly known as the Dutch Palace, the Mattancherry Palace is a Portuguese palace in Mattancherry, Kochi, in the state of Kerala. The studies point to the indigenous development of the ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic age, and its continuity through Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic ages. You... 2. 🎂 Birthdays of Famous Historian / Celebrity, in This Month, Born in (or Nationality) India. *Body defense and longevity therapy *Beauty practice. Revolution and martyrs in the making of a political tradition in Kerala.". * Mental and physical well-being. [48], The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. The non-violent and largely peaceful Vaikom Satyagraha of 1924 was instrumental in securing entry to the public roads adjacent to the Vaikom temple for people belonging to untouchable castes. [3] The Cheras transformed Kerala into an international trade centre by establishing trade relations across the Arabian Sea with all major Mediterranean and Red Sea ports as well those of the Far East. A series of attacks by the Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of Ays although the dynasty remained powerful until the beginning of the 10th century. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many smaller northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala. [51][52] Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. “ The church is located in edappally near to metro Station and lulu mall, beautiful Architecture and clean atmosphere inside the church, parking facilities are there, Recommended tourist spot during kochin visit. [14] The Chera kingdom consisted of a major part of modern Kerala and Kongunadu which comprises western districts of modern Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Salem. Rise of Travancore The Madras Presidency was reorganised to form Madras State in 1947. Lakhs of farms were owned by large establishments, companies and estate owners. He led the Pychy Rebellion (Wynaad Insurrection, Coiote War) against the English East India Company. They were not affected by this move and this was considered as a treachery as these companies and estates were formed by and during the British rule. The two kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin joined the Union of India after independence in 1947. As a result, to this, ever since 1979, the power has been clearly alternating between these two fronts without any change. After the Dutch were defeated by Travancore king Marthanda Varma, the British crown gained control over Kerala by allying with the newly created princely state of Travancore until India was declared independent in 1947. It proclaims that Parasurama, an Avatar of Mahavishnu, threw His battle axe into the sea. "Documents of Investiture Ceremonies" in K. K. N. Kurup, Edit., "India's Naval Traditions". Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were not uncommon in Kerala. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara. Photo: S. Ramesh Kurup 29-12-2003, *The image belongs to single owner for purchased period of time; actual size will be downloaded, Photographer :S Ramesh kurup 2. The Treaty of Mavelikkara was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. This place possesses a marvelous statue of St. Sebastian imported from Italy, and is looked upon as the largest shrine of the St. Sebastian. Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. The state of Kerala is also known as the land of gods. Samoothiri allied with Muslim Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power. PORTRAIT , If you're trying to find out the names of famous Indian historians then this list is the perfect resource for you. "Kerala." [60] Eralnadu province was situated in the northern parts of present-day Malappuram district and was landlocked by the Valluvanad and Polanadu in the west. "History and Historiography in Constituting a Region: The Case of Kerala", This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 06:28. Pazhassi Raja or Lion of Kerala was the hero who strategized guerilla warfare... 3. Also known as Thiruvonam, the festival is celebrated by all citizens of Kerala, irrespective of caste, class, creed, community and social … This resulted in protests against the British by Muslims of the Indian sub-continent known as the Khilafat Movement, which was supported by Mahatma Gandhi in order to draw the Muslims into the mainstream national independence movement. [31] Contemporary Tamil literature, Puṟanāṉūṟu and Akanaṉūṟu, speak of the Roman vessels and the Roman gold that used to come to the Kerala ports in search of pepper and other spices, which had enormous demand in the West. Is there any information of Simon Britto and whether he is a legislative assembly member? In his masterpiece, “The Histories,” he declared at the outset his intention to “prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time.” He then exhaustively detailed the Persian Empire’s expansion and subsequent clash with the city-states of Greece in the 5th century B.C., while also adding in tabloid-worthy asides, such as an allegation that Egyptian women uri… One such legend is the retrieval of Kerala from the sea, by Parasurama, a warrior sage. Narayanan, a Kerala-based historian, in his book, Calicut: The City of Truth states that the Eradi was a favourite of the last Later Chera king and granted him, as a mark of favor, a small tract of land on the sea-coast in addition to his hereditary possessions (Eralnadu province). Mysorean interlude The British concluded treaties of subsidiary alliance with the rulers of Cochin (1791) and Travancore (1795), and these became princely states of British India, maintaining local autonomy in return for a fixed annual tribute to the British. Highest gold consumption in the country Source. [85] As of the 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, the LDF has a majority in the state assembly seats (91/140). Ezhil Malai The magnificent forts, palaces and architectural monuments symbolises different dynasties, communities that existed in Kerala. cites a stone inscription discovered at, Varier, M. R. Raghava. However palaces in Kerala are also popular among history and architectural buffs, experience seekers and photo enthusiasts alike. Minor principalities Dutch period Image Size: 1417 x 1945 pixels Kerala, along with Pondicherry, is the only Indian states to have a female - to - male ratio higher than 0.99. Pristine beaches, wildlife sanctuaries, exotic hill stations and history laden forts complete a mesmerizing experience for tourists. * Body is slimming. This blog enlists the 7 most famous festivals in Kerala that you must join and enjoy the rich culture, vibrant colors and traditions of Kerala. List of notable or famous historians from India, with bios and photos, including the top historians born in India and even some popular historians who immigrated to India. Cassius Dio was a historian from a leading family of Nicaea in Bithynia who was born around A.D. 165. Due to ideological differences the CPI-ML split into several groups. Apart from the natural beauty of Kerala I have handpicked 7 Famous Kerala handicrafts, and take along souvenirs. [52] Adi Shankara is believed to be the organiser of the Dashanami monastic order and the founder of the Shanmatatradition of worship. Encyclopædia Britannica. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. Buddhism and Jainism disappeared from the land. 3. Category: Human Interest The government controlled the police, which made 150,000 arrests (often the same people arrested time and again), and used 248 lathi charges to beat back the demonstrators, killing twenty. In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered large parts of central Kerala, which was under the control of the king of Kingdom of Kochi. The edifice of the Mattancherry Palace perfectly reflects … One of the eight Basilicas in India and it is located in Fort Kochi. George Menachery – historian, editor of The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, editor of The Indian Church History Classics (The Nazranies) Gopi Kottoor – internationally renowned poet; Hassan Thikkodi – writer, poet, Chairman of MES Raja Residential School Eradis subsequently moved their capital to the coastal marshy lands and established the kingdom of Kozhikode[63] They later assumed the title of Samudrāthiri ("one who has the sea for his border") and continued to rule from Kozhikode. He also established the importance of monastic life as sanctioned in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutra, in a time when the Mimamsa school established strict ritualism and ridiculed monasticism. also host the famous boating festival during Onam and attract tourists from all over India as well as from abroad. Mention Kerala and a picture of hills and valleys with gushing waterfalls, playful streams and serene backwaters come to the mind. Search for a Photo, Category & Sub Category, Photo ID, Special Collection, Keywords, Personalities, [37][38] According to the legends of these communities, the earliest Christian churches,[39] mosque,[40] and synagogue (CE 1568)[41] in India were built in Kerala. Shankara represented his works as elaborating on ideas found in the Upanishads, and he wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon (Brahma Sutra, principal upanishads and Bhagavad Gita) in support of his thesis. [8], Archaeological studies have identified many Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic sites in Kerala. [6] It is also mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Portuguese period The Portuguese Cemetery, Kollam (after the invasion of Dutch, it became Dutch Cemetery) of Tangasseri in Kollam city was constructed in around 1519 as part of the Portuguese invasion in the city. The state of Kerala was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara District of Madras state. Anamudi or Anai Mudi is the highest peak of Kerala with an altitude of 2,695 m. It is also the highest peak of Western Ghats. Here we list some of the famous churches in Kerala that are worth paying a visit-#1 Arthunkal Church (St. Andrew’s Basilica, Arthunkal) St Andrews Basilica aka Arthunkal Church was built in 16 th century by Portugese missionaries. Even though Sankara was against all caste systems, in later years his name was used extensively by the Brahmins of Kerala for establishing caste system in Kerala. Much more controversial was an effort to impose state control on private schools, such as those run by the Christians and the NSS, which enrolled 40% of the students. * Bindu Malieckal (2005) Muslims, Matriliny, and A Midsummer Night's Dream: European Encounters with the Mappilas of Malabar, India; The Muslim World Volume 95 Issue 2, To corroborate his assertion that Eradi was in fact a favourite of the last Later Chera, M.G.S. The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. [53][54][55] His activities in Kerala was little and no evidence of his influence is noticed in the literature or other things in his lifetime in Kerala. ", Jeffrey, Robin. But here you will get travel information about only those places which have historical importance. In the 4th century, the Knanaya Christians migrated from Persia and settled in southern Kodungallur. [74][75] A group of pirates known as the Pirates of Tangasseri formerly lived at the Cemetery. Communism in Kerala. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. [64][65] Ibn Battuta (1342–1347), who visited the city of Kozhikode six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. Palakkad Fort is also called as Tipu's Fort (Hyder Ali's son) and remains one of the famous forts in Kerala. [5], The oldest of all the Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the Matsya Avatar (fish incarnation) of Lord Vishnu, in the Western Ghats. ", Lankina, Tomila, and Lullit Getachew. Cochin Browse famous birthdays sorted by profession, birth place and birth region. As the name indicates Anjuthengu is a place full of coconut trees. Battle of Quilon Pazhassi Raja’s resting place, Wayanad. [47][48] As a result, many temples were constructed across Kerala, which according to M. T. Narayanan "became cornerstones of the socio-economic society". State : KERALA [57] The most powerful kingdom of Kerala during the colonial period, Travancore, was developed through the expansion of Venad by Mahahrajah Marthanda Varma, a member of the Thrippappur branch of the Ay Dynasty who ascended to the throne in the 18th century. Kerala, known as God’s own country is a tourist’s paradise. Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja (Kerul Varma Pyche Rajah, Cotiote Rajah) (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was the Prince Regent and the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Kottayam in Malabar, India between 1774 and 1805. [56] When Ay power diminished, Venad became the southernmost principality of the Second Chera Kingdom[57] Invasion of Cholas into Venad caused the destruction of Kollam in 1096. As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Hindu beliefs during the first five centuries. Tel: +91 44 2857 6300 / 2857 6608, Ensure that you have chosen the right dimension for your requirement. [33][34] The Cochin Jews believe that their ancestors came to the west coast of India as refugees following the destruction of Jerusalem in the first century CE. [11] The studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Diss. From the Kodungallur line of the Cheras rose the Kulasekhara dynasty, which was established by Kulasekhara Varman. New elections in 1959 cost the Communists most of their seats and Congress resumed control. [3] From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. Sangam period [3] The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. Country :INDIA, View : 57 Times Mattancherry Palace, Kochi. "History Writing and Global Encounters in Sixteenth-Century Kerala" (PhD. He describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The end of Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of the Venad. At its zenith these Later Cheras ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. [68][69], The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. "Testing concepts about print, newspapers, and politics: Kerala, India, 1800-2009. [9] These findings have been classified into Laterite rock-cut caves (Chenkallara), Hood stones (Kudakkallu), Hat stones (Toppikallu), Dolmenoid cists (Kalvrtham), Urn burials (Nannangadi) and Menhirs (Pulachikallu). He travelled extensively across the Indian subcontinent founding institutions of the widely influential philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. They truly manifests the rich cultural heritage of Kerala. Gamliel, Ophira. [76] The remnants of St. Thomas Fort and Portuguese Cemetery still exist at Tangasseri. The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade. Ramanathaiyer, Sundar, and Stewart MacPherson. Kerala offers a wide number of attractions for travelers, including backwaters if Kerala , verdant hill stations in Kerala and great beaches as well. The state of Kerala is a beautiful state from a religious and spiritual point of view. 1. “ One of the most beautiful churches in Kerala, The Golden dome atrium is a landmark and the beautiful statue of Jesus in the Church complex with angels on either sides is a must-see. Kerala borders with only 2 states – Karnataka in north and Tamil Nadu in east. [citation needed] The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala by name as Cherapadah is the Aitareya Aranyaka, a late Vedic work on philosophy. They became the most powerful king in the Malayalam speaking regions during the Middle Ages. Credit: THE HINDU, Creation Date: 2003-12-29 "Back from Shingly: Revisiting the premodern history of Jews in Kerala. [61][62] M.G.S. Much of history of the region from the 6th to the 8th century is obscure. Later, the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea notes that "both Muziris and Nelcynda are now busy places". Magnificent forts, palaces, architectural monuments represent the ruling dynasties and cultures that existed here. There are many historical places in state Kerala. [45] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period. The brothers, Manikkan and Vikraman were the most trusted generals in the army of the Cheras. [35][36] Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; and Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration might account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas. His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita (nondualism). "The Kerala model in the time of COVID19: Rethinking state, society and democracy. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi—they allied with Kochi and when Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, he established his headquarters at Kochi. University of Kent, University of Porto, 2020), Bayly, Susan. Here is the list of 23 Historical Places in Kerala. Ays [24], The region of Kerala was possibly engaged in trading activities from the 3rd millennium BCE with Sumerians and Babylonians. "Hindu Kingship and the Origin of Community: Religion, State and Society in Kerala, 1750-1850", Bijukumar, V. "Radicalised civil society and protracted political actions in Kerala (India): a socio-political narrative.". Photo: S. Ramesh Kurup 29-12-2003 Caption : A close-up picture of famous historian M.G.S. Colonialism and foreign invasion has … The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala. Legends such as The Origin of Kerala tell the establishment of a local ruling family at Nediyiruppu, near present-day Kondotty by two young brothers belonging to the Eradi clan. "Governments and culture: How women made Kerala literate. Most of these Kerala lakes were built for drinking and irrigation. [79] In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. [32] Jews arrived in Kerala as early as 573 BCE. Chathukulam, Jos, and Joseph Tharamangalam. Politics in Kerala is characterised by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and numerous splinter groups.[85].